|Trajectory Schema: Children are fascinated with throwing|
- - provides a new way of describing children's actions and behaviours
- - enables practitioners to support parents' understanding of their children's learning
- - helps inform planning - schemas highlight children's individual interests, preoccupations, knowledge and abilities (see box, 'Planning for schemas', p18)
- - enables practitioners to become more effective in supporting children's learning, particularly in developing mathematical understanding of height, size, space, order or pattern (see box)
- - identify a child's schemas
- - identify the interests contained within them, and
- - provide repeated, real and first-hand opportunities for the child to repeat and experiment with their schematic concepts, so that they can develop, refine and build upon their existing knowledge.
- - explore movement, indoors and out
- - move over, under, across and through things
- - explore different equipment eg bikes, Frisbees, skates, balls of various sizes and climbing frames
- - play with everyday round household items eg plastic bottles with lids, clocks and cup cakes
- - mix materials together
- - talking to him about the shapes in the environment and counting them
- - comparing circles with other shapes and discussing their differences
- - playing ball or shape games, for example, 'I spy a shape with no edges/four sides/etc.
- Enveloping and containingExamples: Oliver (nine months) is interested in searching for objects that have been hidden or covered up. He is often observed looking for things that are hidden exactly where he found them the last time. He likes wearing hats and loves games of 'peek-a-boo'. Engaged in the enveloping schema, he is completely fascinated by the concept of 'object permanence', where a child learns that just because they cannot see an object, it does not mean that it is no longer there.Erica, 47 months, enjoys building dens, wrapping things up, dressing up in layers of clothing, filling up bags and containers, and digging for worms and treasure in the garden.Learning: While both Oliver and Erica are pursuing ideas around hiding and concealing, their individual lines of inquiry are different. Oliver is developing his understanding of 'object permanence' - a significant milestone in child development because it is linked to children's developing cognitive structures. Oliver can remember objects even when they are out of sight and is able to demonstrate his thinking as he begins to make predictions about where things are hidden.Erica shows that she is developing a conceptual understanding about space and size. As she fills her bags and sees which bag has more objects and which bag has less, she is exploring ideas around calculating and developing her conceptual knowledge about volume and capacity.Support: Practitioners provide opportunities for the children to:
Practitioners should also model words and phrases such as 'hiding', 'disappeared' and 'invisible', to help Erica express herself appropriately.
- - play hide and seek
- - wrap up dolls in blankets/nappies
- - play with bags and containers of varying sizes
- - dig for worms or treasure
- - play with hats, scarves, old clothes
|Enveloping Schema: Peek a Boo|
Examples: Eighteen-month-old Ella and 42-month-old Jade are both fascinated with moving objects - and themselves - from place to place. Ella enjoys carrying objects about in her hands or containers and pushing empty buggies around. As she fills and empties her containers, she is developing a conceptual understanding about quantity and number. She is also learning different things about places and locations.
Jade spends a lot of time moving all the kitchen utensils and furniture in the role-play area to the garden. As she learns better ways to move objects from one place to another, she becomes more developed in imaginative play and understands more about creating new spaces.
Learning: Despite the obvious similarities in the play of Ella and Jade, their individual interest in transporting differs. Ella is learning about direction, size, shape and space as she tries to push her buggy through narrow spaces. Jade, however, is developing a deeper conceptual understanding about space, place and quantity.
Support: Practitioners should plan opportunities for the children to:
- - use such language as 'how far?' or 'turn right/towards' etc
- - talk about location, building and the different modes of transport
- - explore living things and create a scrapbook of children's learning
- - transport bags, baskets and small objects around the setting.
|A deeper conceptual understanding of space, place and quantity|
comes through transporting
- - solve problems for themselves, using their connecting skills in different contexts
- - recognise problems, preserve, try new solutions and think logically.
- - play with boxes, old sheets or other materials that children can change to suit their own purpose
- - talk about size and dimension and let children explore different measuring tools